1950s

By CIOinsight  |  Posted 11-01-2001

The First Fifty Years of Business Computing Timeline

 

1950s

1950s

In Technology: Data Processing
In Business: Post-War Growth

MSOPS* $58.00
DOW† 201.80

1951

The LEO computer runs the world's first regular routine office computer job

UNIVAC, the first commercial computer system in the U.S., is introduced

1952

Norman Woodland and Bernard Silver awarded patent for the bar code

IBM introduces the 701, its first electronic stored-program computer

1955

Bank of America and SRI complete a prototype of ERMA

1956

John McCarthy coins the term "artificial intelligence"

1957

Ken Olsen establishes Digital Equipment Corp.

1958

Seymour Cray builds the first fully transistorized supercomputer

1958

Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments makes the first integrated circuit

1959

Computer Science Corp. sells the first packaged program

IBM introduces its 1401 model

* Total cost of computing in 1998 dollars per MSOPS (Millions of Standardized Operations Per Second). This metric was devised by Dr. William D. Nordhaus, Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, to correct for deficiencies in MIPS, a common measure of computing power. A MSOPS machine can add 20 million 32-bit integer numbers in one second. The number for each decade is an average of representative computer systems around the beginning of the decade.

† The Dow Jones Industrial average for the first day of each decade.

1960s

1960s

In Technology: Management Information Systems
In Business: Corporate Dominance

MSOPS $2.60
DOW 622.60

1960

Benjamin Curley of Digital Equipment Corp. develops the first minicomputer, PDP-1

The first SABRE reservation system is installed

1961

MIT demonstrates time sharing

1963

CAD is introduced by General Motors and MIT Lincoln Laboratories

1964

IBM announces its System 360 mainframe

Douglas Engelbart and his team invent a graphical user interface using a mouse and windows

1965

Gordon Moore's pronouncement is termed "Moore's Law"

1966

Texas Instruments introduces the first solid-state hand-held calculator

1968

Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found Intel

1969

Work begins on the ARPANet

Dennis Ritchie et al at Bell Labs create Unix

1970s

1970s

In Technology: The Minicomputer
In Business: Rise of the Multinational

MSOPS $.41
DOW 744.10

1971

Marcian E. Hoff and others at Intel announce the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 Computer engineer Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail

1972

Lloyd's Bank in the U.K. introduces the first online ATM

1974

The first product with a bar code is scanned at a checkout counter

Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft

1975

First inter-industry EDI standard is released

1976

Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs found Apple Computer, introduce Apple II

Robert Metcalfe of Xerox introduces the Ethernet concept to the National Computer Conference

1977

Larry Ellison and others start System Develop Laboratories, later known as Oracle Corp.

1978

Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston release VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet

1979

The Source and CompuServe Information Services go online

1980s

1980s

In Technology: The Networked PC
In Business: Wall Street Triumphant

MSOPS $.005
DOW 875.90

1980

Total computers worldwide exceed 5 million

1981

IBM introduces the first PC

1982

Microsoft licenses MS-DOS to manufacturers

1984

Apple introduces the Macintosh

William Gibson introduces the term "cyberspace" in his novel Neuromancer

Michael Dell founds Dell Computer

1985

Microsoft ships Windows 1.0

1986

Burroughs and Sperry merge to form Unisys Corp.

Compaq introduces the first Intel 80386-based PC

1988

Apollo, Ardent and Stellar announce the first graphics supercomputers

1989

Intel announces the 80486 processor

Ray Ozzie creates Lotus Notes

Compaq releases the first battery-powered, fully functional notebook computer

1990s

1990s

In Technology: The Internet
In Business: Dot-Com Craze

MSOPS $.00004
DOW 2590.50

1991

World Wide Web released for general use at CERN

1991

Linux .01 released

1993

Web goes graphic with Mosaic browser

Private companies are given access to the Internet

1994

Netscape Communications founded by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark

1995

NSFnet turned off and Internet traffic handed over to commercial firms

Jeff Bezos founds Amazon.com

eBay founded by Pierre Omidyan to trade Pez dispensers

1996

First Palm Pilot released

1998

U.S. and 20 states file antitrust suit against Microsoft

1999

Corporations hunker down as they await Y2K

Napster brings music to the masses over the Net

2000s

2000s

In Technology: Security and Privacy
In Business: E-Business Mainstream

MSOPS $.00000004
DOW 10,940.50

2000

Intel and AMD unveil microprocessors that break the 1000 MHz barrier

The CERT Coordination Center reports 21,756 business security break-ins

Covisint debuts; B2B exchanges mushroom to 1,500

B2B transactions over the Internet reach $433 billion

U.S. online retail sales reach $34 billion

2001

16.3 million estimated corporate telecommuters, up 42% in one year

Demand for videoconferencing, disaster recovery services rise following Sept. 11 terrorist attacks

200 million users estimated to have signed up for instant messaging