In Technology: Data Processing
In Business: Post-War Growth

MSOPS* $58.00
DOW† 201.80


The LEO computer runs the world's first regular routine office computer job

UNIVAC, the first commercial computer system in the U.S., is introduced


Norman Woodland and Bernard Silver awarded patent for the bar code

IBM introduces the 701, its first electronic stored-program computer


Bank of America and SRI complete a prototype of ERMA


John McCarthy coins the term "artificial intelligence"


Ken Olsen establishes Digital Equipment Corp.


Seymour Cray builds the first fully transistorized supercomputer


Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments makes the first integrated circuit


Computer Science Corp. sells the first packaged program

IBM introduces its 1401 model

* Total cost of computing in 1998 dollars per MSOPS (Millions of Standardized Operations Per Second). This metric was devised by Dr. William D. Nordhaus, Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, to correct for deficiencies in MIPS, a common measure of computing power. A MSOPS machine can add 20 million 32-bit integer numbers in one second. The number for each decade is an average of representative computer systems around the beginning of the decade.

† The Dow Jones Industrial average for the first day of each decade.

This article was originally published on 11-01-2001
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